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AMINO ACIDS

Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. The sequence of life combining to form protein structures including muscle tissue, enzymes and hormones.

What makes amino acids, which combine to form proteins, different from other macronutrients (carbohydrates and fats)? They all contain an amino group (NH2) attached to an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and an organic side group (R). Carbohydrates and fats do not contain an amino group.

Amino acids are a remarkable and essential component of our genetic code and are present in every single cell in our bodies. Thus, amino acids are involved in a number of metabolic pathways that effect the breakdown of food and growth.


2. What are the different types of Amino Acids?Amino acids are either essential (must be derived from one's diet), nonessential (can be synthesized within the body from the breakdown of proteins and other amino acids) or conditionally essential (amino acids which cannot be synthesized in certain situations and therefore must be consumed).

20 amino acids are important for humans. Nine of which are generally regarded as essential. They are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine, valine and phenylalanine. The nonessential amino acids are: alanine, serine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid and proline.

The amino acids considered conditionally essential are: arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine and tyrosine. Although they are not normally required in the diet, certain populations may require food sources to receive these amino acids as they may not synthesize them in adequate amounts.

Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA's), a group of three essential amino acids, are different from the other 17 amino acids in that in one of their roles, they are a primary source of fuel for skeletal muscles. This makes them of particular value and importance to elite athletes as far as sports supplements are concerned. The branched chain amino acids are: valine, leucine, and isoleucine.

Essential Amino Acids Non-Essential Amino Acids Conditionally Essential Amino Acids
Valine* Alanine Arginine
Isoleucine* Serine Cysteine
Leucine* Aspartic acid Glycine
Lysine Cysteine Glutamine
Methionine Glutamic Acid Tyrosine
Phenylalanine Proline
Tryptophan
Histidine
Threonine
* Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA's)

3. What are the best sources of Amino Acids?In order for protein to be used most efficiently in the body, all of the essential amino acids must be present. A complete protein is one that contains all of the essential amino acids where as an incomplete protein does not. Examples of complete proteins, high in essential amino acids, are animal-based proteins such as chicken, beef, pork, fish, milk, cheese, as well as milk proteins such as whey, casein, egg and plant-based soy protein. Additionally, two incomplete proteins such as beans and rice may be combined to form a complete protein. Consuming optimal amounts of amino acids including essential, conditionally essential and nonessential amino acids will aid you in your quest to maintain a healthy body.


Contrary to popular belief, an adequate daily intake of essential amino acids can be obtained entirely from plant sources although it requires more of a conscious effort. If the vegetarian diet has sufficient variety and planning and contains adequate amounts of legumes, soy protein, seeds and nuts, grains, fruits and vegetables, then the recommended daily allowance of protein can be achieved. Vegetarians who consume eggs and milk products are much less likely to have a deficiency.

Some of the best sources of amino acids are protein shakes and energy bars, which are specifically formulated to have an ideal balance of essential amino acids to be effectively used within the body. Additionally, high-quality amino acid supplements in the form of tablets and powders are available from Titanperformance.store

4. What do Amino Acids do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?As previously mentioned, amino acids are the primary constituents of an array of structures vital to life. Amino acids may be linked together via peptide bonds to form proteins used by the body for anabolic purposes, assisting in the growth and repair of body tissues. They may also be broken down and used as energy in catabolic reactions.

Supplementing one's diet with additional amino acids can be highly beneficial, enhancing muscle tissue growth and serving as an energy source available during exercise. Due to the incredible efficiency of the human body, if adequate amino acids are not available during an intense workout, the body may start to cannibalize muscle tissue to make up for the deficit. That's why pre-workout amino acid supplementation and the postworkout anabolic window is vitally important for maintaining positive nitrogen balance and building muscle mass with protein (amino acids) consumption.

One study found that when a group of individuals was split up and given either 40 g of essential amino acids or a placebo, then followed an identical resistance training program, the group taking amino acids showed greater muscle growth.

A follow-up study was then conducted with the same protocols, except this time with 6 g of essential amino acids and 36 g of sucralose taken either pre-workout, postworkout, or at both times. what is interesting is that the data shows that group that consumed the essential amino acid and sugar combination before exercise produced a 158% greater anabolic effect than those who consumed it immediately after training (International Journal Of Sports Nutrition And Exercise Metabolism, 109-32. 2001). This study suggests that not only do amino acids assist muscle growth and energy for resistance training individuals, but the best time to consume this particular mixture is pre-workout.

5. Who needs Amino Acids and how much should be taken? Are there any side effects or symptoms of deficiency?Everyone needs a daily amount of amino acids to live. Amino acids can be particularly beneficial to hard training athletes and bodybuilders bulking up who are looking to put on excess muscle mass.

Because the body cannot make or store essential amino acids, they must be consumed in one's diet daily. The RDA for protein (amino acids) for men and women is 0.83 g of protein per kilogram of body weight (0.377 g per pound of body weight); however, an athlete's protein (amino acids) requirements may be higher due to the constant protein breakdown caused by training.

Although it's debatable the adequate or optimal level of protein consumption, many personal trainers, sports doctors and scientists now recommend 1.2 to 1.8 g per kilogram of body weight for those who regularly exercise; depending on a persons type of training, intensity, duration, frequency, overall caloric intake and body composition goals.

Deficiencies are rare because most people consume enough amino acids in the average diet. Those who are at risk from amino acid deficiency and may benefit from amino acid supplementation are people on low calorie diets, vegetarians, people with allergies or stress-related diseases and people with hypoglycemia. Other people who may show signs of amino acid deficiency could be people with trouble digesting food. This could be due to a lack of digestive enzymes, which are synthesized by the body combining amino acids; but they may also be supplemented.

Excess protein consumption is generally not a major concern with amino acid supplements. Take your game to the next level in your quest for health and fitness with amino acid supplements from Titanperformance.store

Author: Travis Smith, © 2007.

References:Gretchen Ferraro, M.A., et al. Sports Nutrition Review. 2004.
Katch, Frank. Katch, Victor, McArdle, William (2001). Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance (5th Ed.). Maryland: Lippincott William and Wilkins.
http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI//DRI_Energy/589-768.pdf
http://www.oralchelation.com/technical/amino1.htm#t3
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complete_protein
http://recipes.howstuffworks.com/food3.htm
http://healthguide.howstuffworks.com/amino-acids-dictionary.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_in_nutrition
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid
http://www.veganhealth.org/articles/protein
http://www.gettinglean.com/veg.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essential_amino_acid
Houston, Michael (2001). Biochemistry Primer for Exercise Science (2nd Ed.). Illinois: Human Kinetics.
Tipton, KD, et al. International Journal Of Sports Nutrition And Exercise Metabolism, 109-32. 2001. Vince Andrich. Sports Supplement Review, Fourth Issue. 2001.
Widmaier, Eric. Raff, Hershal, Kevin, Strange (2004). Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function (9th Ed.) Boston: Mcgraw Hill.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

High-Quality Amino Acids/BCAAs Supplements Are Available From Titanperformance.store Go To The Full Amino Acids

 

ANTI-ESTROGEN & PCTs

Gynecomastia has been a pandemic on the male population. Whether from natural causes or side affects from experimentation, there are products that combats this problem.

PCT/anti-estrogen's

1. What is an anti-estrogen and where does it come from?An anti-estrogen, simply put, is an estrogen blocker. Males and females have two major hormones in the body that is estrogen and testosterone.

Guys have more testosterone and girls have more estrogen. Unfortunately for guys, estrogen carrys a strong signal to the pituitary gland in the brain, which controls your "on" and "off" switch for testosterone production.

What happens when estrogen levels rise higher than normal in males, the body's testosterone production lowers, which is not a good thing when you are trying to build and pack on muscle!

Anti-estrogen products come in a wide variety from a different number of manufacturers. Some of the most common ingredients in anti-estrogen products are:3a-Hydroxyetioallocholan Ethyl Ester1, 4, 6 etioallocholan-dione4-etioallocholen-3, 6, 17-trione6, 17-keto-etiocholeve-3-ol tetrahydropyranolChrysinGreen Tea Extract

2. What do anti-estrogen products do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Anti-estrogen products again, help stop the production of estrogen in the body. This is very critical and important due to the fact that estrogen is testosterones enemy! A study done in Europe showed athletes who supplemented chrysin had a dramatic testosterone increase of 30% in their blood serum levels!

Along with chrysin, another potent and important ingredient that helps suppress estrogen is green tea extract. Green tea's involvement is because it helps increase the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on the proliferation of the estrogen receptor.

3. Who needs an anti-estrogen and how much should be taken? Are there any side effects or symptoms of deficiency?Anyone who decides to take a prohormone should definitely take an anti-estrogen supplement. This is imperative due to the side effects that can occur if an anti-aromatase/anti-estrogen is not taken. As stated earlier, the most common and widely known side effect is Gynocomastia.

We always recommend to take the serving size as recommended by the manufacturer of the product you are taking.

To date, there have been no known side effects or deficiency reported stemming directly from taking an anti-estrogen product.

Published with permission, original © 2007.

References:http://www.webmd.com/
http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/27/12/2424
http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/hp.asp
http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/bgl066v1.pdf


These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.High-Quality Anti-Estrogens Supplements Are Available From Titanperformance.store Go To The Full pct/ Anti-Estrogens Product Listing!

Pct (Post cycle therapy) is for individuals coming off any substance that lowers testosterone. With pct products regeneration of the hpta ( ) male hormonal system is possible.
 

 
 

CARBS

Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. The sequence of life combining to form protein structures including muscle tissue, enzymes and hormones.

What makes amino acids, which combine to form proteins, different from other macronutrients (carbohydrates and fats)? They all contain an amino group (NH2) attached to an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and an organic side group (R). Carbohydrates and fats do not contain an amino group.

Amino acids are a remarkable and essential component of our genetic code and are present in every single cell in our bodies. Thus, amino acids are involved in a number of metabolic pathways that effect the breakdown of food and growth.


2. What are the different types of Amino Acids?Amino acids are either essential (must be derived from one's diet), nonessential (can be synthesized within the body from the breakdown of proteins and other amino acids) or conditionally essential (amino acids which cannot be synthesized in certain situations and therefore must be consumed).

20 amino acids are important for humans. Nine of which are generally regarded as essential. They are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine, valine and phenylalanine. The nonessential amino acids are: alanine, serine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid and proline.

The amino acids considered conditionally essential are: arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine and tyrosine. Although they are not normally required in the diet, certain populations may require food sources to receive these amino acids as they may not synthesize them in adequate amounts.

Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA's), a group of three essential amino acids, are different from the other 17 amino acids in that in one of their roles, they are a primary source of fuel for skeletal muscles. This makes them of particular value and importance to elite athletes as far as sports supplements are concerned. The branched chain amino acids are: valine, leucine, and isoleucine.

Essential Amino Acids Non-Essential Amino Acids Conditionally Essential Amino Acids
Valine* Alanine Arginine
Isoleucine* Serine Cysteine
Leucine* Aspartic acid Glycine
Lysine Cysteine Glutamine
Methionine Glutamic Acid Tyrosine
Phenylalanine Proline
Tryptophan
Histidine
Threonine
* Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA's)

3. What are the best sources of Amino Acids?In order for protein to be used most efficiently in the body, all of the essential amino acids must be present. A complete protein is one that contains all of the essential amino acids where as an incomplete protein does not. Examples of complete proteins, high in essential amino acids, are animal-based proteins such as chicken, beef, pork, fish, milk, cheese, as well as milk proteins such as whey, casein, egg and plant-based soy protein. Additionally, two incomplete proteins such as beans and rice may be combined to form a complete protein. Consuming optimal amounts of amino acids including essential, conditionally essential and nonessential amino acids will aid you in your quest to maintain a healthy body.


Contrary to popular belief, an adequate daily intake of essential amino acids can be obtained entirely from plant sources although it requires more of a conscious effort. If the vegetarian diet has sufficient variety and planning and contains adequate amounts of legumes, soy protein, seeds and nuts, grains, fruits and vegetables, then the recommended daily allowance of protein can be achieved. Vegetarians who consume eggs and milk products are much less likely to have a deficiency.

Some of the best sources of amino acids are protein shakes and energy bars, which are specifically formulated to have an ideal balance of essential amino acids to be effectively used within the body. Additionally, high-quality amino acid supplements in the form of tablets and powders are available from Titanperformance.store

4. What do Amino Acids do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?As previously mentioned, amino acids are the primary constituents of an array of structures vital to life. Amino acids may be linked together via peptide bonds to form proteins used by the body for anabolic purposes, assisting in the growth and repair of body tissues. They may also be broken down and used as energy in catabolic reactions.

Supplementing one's diet with additional amino acids can be highly beneficial, enhancing muscle tissue growth and serving as an energy source available during exercise. Due to the incredible efficiency of the human body, if adequate amino acids are not available during an intense workout, the body may start to cannibalize muscle tissue to make up for the deficit. That's why pre-workout amino acid supplementation and the postworkout anabolic window is vitally important for maintaining positive nitrogen balance and building muscle mass with protein (amino acids) consumption.

One study found that when a group of individuals was split up and given either 40 g of essential amino acids or a placebo, then followed an identical resistance training program, the group taking amino acids showed greater muscle growth.

A follow-up study was then conducted with the same protocols, except this time with 6 g of essential amino acids and 36 g of sucralose taken either pre-workout, postworkout, or at both times. what is interesting is that the data shows that group that consumed the essential amino acid and sugar combination before exercise produced a 158% greater anabolic effect than those who consumed it immediately after training (International Journal Of Sports Nutrition And Exercise Metabolism, 109-32. 2001). This study suggests that not only do amino acids assist muscle growth and energy for resistance training individuals, but the best time to consume this particular mixture is pre-workout.

5. Who needs Amino Acids and how much should be taken? Are there any side effects or symptoms of deficiency?Everyone needs a daily amount of amino acids to live. Amino acids can be particularly beneficial to hard training athletes and bodybuilders bulking up who are looking to put on excess muscle mass.

Because the body cannot make or store essential amino acids, they must be consumed in one's diet daily. The RDA for protein (amino acids) for men and women is 0.83 g of protein per kilogram of body weight (0.377 g per pound of body weight); however, an athlete's protein (amino acids) requirements may be higher due to the constant protein breakdown caused by training.

Although it's debatable the adequate or optimal level of protein consumption, many personal trainers, sports doctors and scientists now recommend 1.2 to 1.8 g per kilogram of body weight for those who regularly exercise; depending on a persons type of training, intensity, duration, frequency, overall caloric intake and body composition goals.

Deficiencies are rare because most people consume enough amino acids in the average diet. Those who are at risk from amino acid deficiency and may benefit from amino acid supplementation are people on low calorie diets, vegetarians, people with allergies or stress-related diseases and people with hypoglycemia. Other people who may show signs of amino acid deficiency could be people with trouble digesting food. This could be due to a lack of digestive enzymes, which are synthesized by the body combining amino acids; but they may also be supplemented.

Excess protein consumption is generally not a major concern with amino acid supplements. Take your game to the next level in your quest for health and fitness with amino acid supplements from Titanperformance.store

Author: Travis Smith, © 2007.

References:Gretchen Ferraro, M.A., et al. Sports Nutrition Review. 2004.
Katch, Frank. Katch, Victor, McArdle, William (2001). Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance (5th Ed.). Maryland: Lippincott William and Wilkins.
http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI//DRI_Energy/589-768.pdf
http://www.oralchelation.com/technical/amino1.htm#t3
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complete_protein
http://recipes.howstuffworks.com/food3.htm
http://healthguide.howstuffworks.com/amino-acids-dictionary.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_in_nutrition
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid
http://www.veganhealth.org/articles/protein
http://www.gettinglean.com/veg.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essential_amino_acid
Houston, Michael (2001). Biochemistry Primer for Exercise Science (2nd Ed.). Illinois: Human Kinetics.
Tipton, KD, et al. International Journal Of Sports Nutrition And Exercise Metabolism, 109-32. 2001. Vince Andrich. Sports Supplement Review, Fourth Issue. 2001.
Widmaier, Eric. Raff, Hershal, Kevin, Strange (2004). Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function (9th Ed.) Boston: Mcgraw Hill.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

High-Quality Amino Acids/BCAAs Supplements Are Available From Titanperformance.store Go To The Full Amino Acids

 

CASEIN

Casein 

Casein is the major component of protein found in bovine milk accounting for nearly 70-80% of its total protein and is responsible for the white color of milk. It is the most commonly used milk protein in the industry today. Milk proteins are of significant physiological importance to the body for functions relating to the uptake of nutrients and vitamins and they are a source of biologically active peptides. Similar to whey, casein is a complete protein and also contains the minerals calcium and phosphorous. Casein has a PDCAAS rating of 1.23 (generally reported as a truncated value of 1.0) (Deutz et al. 1998).

Casein exists in milk in the form of a micelle, which is a large colloidal particle. An attractive property of the casein micelle is its ability to form a gel or clot in the stomach. The ability to form this clot makes it very efficient in nutrient supply. The clot is able to provide a sustained slow release of amino acids into the blood stream, sometimes lasting for several hours (Boirie et al. 1997). This provides better nitrogen retention and utilization by the body.

  • Haug A, Hostmark AT, Harstad OM. Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review. Lipids Health Dis. 2007;6:25. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-6-25.[PMC free article]  [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

  • Bos C, Metges CC, Gaudichon C, Petzke KJ, Pueyo ME, Morens C, Everwand J, Benamouzig R, Tome D. Postprandial kinetics of dietary amino acids are the main determinant of their metabolism after soy or milk protein ingestion in humans. J Nutr. 2003;133:1308–1315.[PubMed]

  • Kraemer WJ, Duncan ND, Volek JS. Resistance training and elite athletes: adaptations and program considerations. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998;28:110–119.  [PubMed]

  • Phillips SM, Tipton KD, Aarsland A, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Physiol. 1997;273:E99–107.  [PubMed]

  • Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM, Doyle DJ, Wolfe RR. Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:E628–E634.  [PubMed]

  • Tipton KD, Elliott TA, Cree MG, Wolf SE, Sanford AP, Wolfe RR. Ingestion of casein and whey proteins result in muscle anabolism after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:2073–2081. doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000147582.99810.C5.[PubMed] [Cross Ref]

  • Borsheim E, Cree MG, Tipton KD, Elliott TA, Aarsland A, Wolfe RR. Effect of carbohydrate intake on net muscle protein synthesis during recovery from resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2004;96:674–678. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00333.2003.[PubMed] [Cross Ref]

  • Roy BD, Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD, Fowles J, Yarasheski KE. Effect of glucose supplement timing on protein metabolism after resistance training. J Appl Physiol. 1997;82:1882–1888. doi: 10.1063/1.365993.  [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

  • Roy BD, Fowles J, Hill R, Tarnopolsky MA. Macronutrient intake and whole body protein metabolism following resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:1412–1418. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200008000-00009.[PubMed] [Cross Ref]

  • Rasmussen BB, Tipton KD, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88:386–392.  [PubMed]


  • These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or dm prevent any disease.

 
 
 

DIET & ENERGY

Fat burners supplements designed to increase metabolism, energy, and reduce appetite. This increases the number of calories burned. This over time can translate into weight loss.

Other ingredients in fat burners can signal certain hormones like epinephrine to break down fats and make them ready for the body to use as a fuel source.

 

In one study, supplemental fat burners in addition to a low-calorie, high-protein diet for 3 weeks: 1) reduced body weight 97% more, 2) reduced %Fat according to skinfolds 9 times more, and 3) reduced skinfold thicknesses at five of the seven sites, compared to diet alone. The supplements increased the efficiency (114% vs. 79%) of converting a caloric deficit into fat loss, thereby improving fat loss over diet alone by 35%. Since skinfolds wer

 

1. Delbridge EA, Prendergast LA, Pritchard JE, Proietto J (2009) One-year weight maintenance after significant weight loss in healthy overweight and obese subjects: does diet composition matter? Am J Clin Nutr 90: 1203–1214. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27209 [PubMed]

2. Claessens M, van Baak MA, Monsheimer S, Saris WH (2009) The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors. Int J Obes (Lond) 33: 296–304. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2008.278 [PubMed]

3. Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2005) Additional protein intake limits weight regain after weight loss in humans. Br J Nutr 93: 281–289. [PubMed]

4. Hursel R, Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2009) Green tea catechin plus caffeine supplementation to a high-protein diet has no additional effect on body weight maintenance after weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 89: 822–830. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27043 [PubMed]

5. Kamphuis MM, Lejeune MP, Saris WH, Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2003) The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on body weight regain, body composition, and resting metabolic rate in overweight subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27: 840–847. [PubMed]

6. Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, McGuckin BG, Brill C, et al. (2003) A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med 348: 2082–2090. [PubMed]

7. Skov AR, Toubro S, Ronn B, Holm L, Astrup A (1999) Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23: 528–536. [PubMed]

8. Baba NH, Sawaya S, Torbay N, Habbal Z, Azar S, et al. (1999) High protein vs high carbohydrate hypoenergetic diet for the treatment of obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23: 1202–1206.[PubMed]

9. Acheson KJ (2013) Diets for body weight control and health: the potential of changing the macronutrient composition. Eur J Clin Nutr67: 462–466. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.194[PubMed]

10. Wycherley TP, Moran LJ, Clifton PM, Noakes M, Brinkworth GD (2012) Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 96: 1281–1298. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.044321 [PubMed]

 

DIGESTIVE

Some digestive aids are produced and secreted by the gastrointestinal system to degrade fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, to accomplish the digestion and, afterwards, the absorption of nutrients. Their supplementation, when indicated, may provide a reliable help as an adjuvant treatment of several disorders characterized by an impairment of digestive functions. To date, various formulations  are available such as those from Titanperformance.store and they are currently used in clinical practice for the management of several digestive diseases, especially those involving organs designated to the production of digestive enzymes, including the exocrine pancreas (which produces pancreatic enzymes) and the small intestinal brush border (which produces lactase). These products have prove themselves worthy in human study after study with the following; casein  and gluten Intolerance, lactose intolerance pancreatic insufficiency, food allergies, celiacs disease

Microbial Control, Colon health. 

 

 

1. Ziemer CJ, Gibson GR. An overview of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in the functional food concept: perspectives and future strategies. International Dairy Journal. 1998;8(5-6):473–479.

2. Granato D, Branco GF, Nazzaro F, Cruz AG, Faria JA. Functional foods and nondairy probiotic food development: trends, concepts, and products. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2010;9(3):292–302.

3. Toma MM, Pokrotnieks J. Probiotics as functional food: microbiological and medical aspects. Acta Universitatis. 2006;710:117–129.

4. Salminen SJ, Gueimonde M, Isolauri E. Probiotics that modify disease risk. Journal of Nutrition. 2005;135(5):1294–1298.  [PubMed]

5. Fuller R.  Probiotics a Critical Review.Wymondham, UK: Horizon Scientific; 1999. Probiotics for farm animals; pp. 15–22.

6. Fuller R. Probiotics in man and animals. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 1989;66(5):365–378.  [PubMed]

7. FAO/WHO. Report on Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food Including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria. 2001. 

8. Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. Journal of Nutrition. 1995;125(6):1401–1412.[PubMed]

9. Berg RD. Probiotics, prebiotics or "conbiotics"? Trends in Microbiology. 1998;6(3):89–92.  [PubMed]

10. Holzapfel WH, Haberer P, Geisen R, Björkroth J, Schillinger U. Taxonomy and important features of probiotic microorganisms in food and nutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001;73(2):365S–373S.[PubMed]

 

ELECTROLYTES

Electrolytes are certain nutrients (or chemicals) present in your body that have many important functions — from regulating your heartbeat to allowing your muscles to contract so you can move.

 

Some others are: helping with muscle contractions, nerve signaling, blood clotting, cell division, and forming/maintaining bones and teeth. 

 

Keeping  blood pressure levels stable, regulating heart contractions, helping with muscle functions.

 

They are also needed for proper heart rhythms, bone-building and strength, reducing anxiety, digestion, and keeping a stable protein-fluid balance. 

 

 

Effects of electrolyte and nutrient solutions on performance and metabolic balance.

Johnson HL, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988.

 

Musculoskeletal performance and hydration status

Joseph A. Rothenberg and André Panagos

 

Fluids and hydration in prolonged endurance performance.

Review article

Von Duvillard SP, et al. Nutrition. 2004 Jul-Aug.

Fluid and electrolyte balance in ultra-endurance sport.

Review article

Rehrer NJ. Sports Med. 2001.

 

1. Coyle E.F. Substrate utilization during exercise in active people. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1995;61:S968–S979.  [PubMed]

2. Sawka M.N., Burke L.M., Eichner E.R., Maughan R.J., Montain S.J., Stachenfeld N.S. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2007;39:377–390. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000272779.34140.3b.[PubMed] [Cross Ref]

3. Tsintzas K., Williams C., Wilson W., Burrin J. Influence of carbohydrate supplementation early in exercise on endurance running capacity. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1996;28:1373–1379. doi: 10.1097/00005768-199611000-00005.  [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

4. Jeukendrup A.E. Carbohydrate intake during exercise and performance. Nutrition. 2004;20:669–677. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.017.  [PubMed][Cross Ref]

5. Rodriguez N.R., di Marco N.M., Langley S. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2009;41:709–731. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31890eb86.  [PubMed][Cross Ref]

6. Temesi J., Johnson N.A., Raymond J., Burdon C.A., O’Connor H.T. Carbohydrate ingestion during endurance exercise improves performance in adults. J. Nutr. 2011;141:890–897. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.137075.  [PubMed][Cross Ref]

7. Karelis A.D., Smith J.E.W., Passe D.H., Péronnet F. Carbohydrate administration and exercise performance: What are the potential mechanisms involved? Sports Med. 2010;40:747–763. doi: 10.2165/11533080-000000000-00000.  [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

8. Cermak N., van Loon L.C. The use of carbohydrates during exercise as an ergogenic aid. Sports Med. 2013;43:1139–1155. doi: 10.1007/s40279-013-0079-0.  [PubMed][Cross Ref]

9. Andrews J.L., Sedlock D.A., Flynn M.G., Navalta J.W., Ji H. Carbohydrate loading and supplementation in endurance-trained women runners. J. Appl. Physiol. 2003;95:584–590. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00855.2002.[PubMed] [Cross Ref]

 

ENDURANCE

See electrolytes and hydration.

 

HYDRATION

  • Hydration products POSITIVELY AFFECTS OSMOLARITY:  EXPANSION AND MAINTENANCE OF FLUID VOLUME (I.E. HYPERHYDRATION)*

 

  • They also HELP the BODY TO FACILITATE HYDRATION FOR EXTENDED PERIODS OF ACTIVITY. This leads to increase cardiac capacity and output. 

  • Many athletes play in rigorous conditions. The hydration supplements allows them to EXCEL IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEAT AND HUMIDITY, without loosing the amount of electrolytes and fluids compared to non- supplementation. 

 

  • Anderson MJ, Cotter JD, Garnham AP, Casley DJ, Febbraio MA. Effect of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on thermoregulation and metabolism during exercise in heat. Int J Sport Nutr Exer Metabol. 2001;11:315–333.  [PubMed]

  • Baba H, Zhang XJ, Wolfe RR. Glycerol gluconeogenesis in fasting humans. Nutr. 1995;11:149–153.  [PubMed]

  • Brisson D, Vohl MC, St-Pierre J, Hudson T, Gaudet D. Glycerol: a neglected variable in metabolic processes. Bio Essays. 2001;23:534–542.  [PubMed]

  • Burelle Y, Massıcotte D, Lussıer M, Lavoıe C, Hıllaıre-Marcel C, Peronnet F. Oxidation of [13C] glycerol ingested along with glucose during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2001;90:1685–1690.  [PubMed]

  • Burge CM, Carey MF, Payne WR. Rowing performance, fluid balance, and metabolic function following dehydration and rehydration. Med Sci Sports Exer. 1993;25:1358–1364.  [PubMed]

INFLAMMATION

Anti- inflammation aids do more than help injury, recovery etc. They actually help manage weight loss. It’s been proven in several studies that trough antioxidant and inflammatory mechanisms, obesity can be affected positively. They directly interact with adipocytes, pancreatic cells, hepatic stellate cells, macrophages, and muscle cells. There, it suppresses the proinflammatory transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B, signal transducer and activators of transcription-3, and Wnt/β-catenin, and it activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and Nrf2 cell-signaling pathways, thus leading to the downregulation of adipokines, including tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, resistin, leptin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and the upregulation of adiponectin and other gene products. These curcumin-induced alterations reverse insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and other symptoms linked to obesity. Other structurally homologous nutraceuticals, derived from red chili, cinnamon, cloves, black pepper, and ginger, also exhibit effects against obesity and insulin resistance.

 

Some of these are catechins, capsaicin, conjugated linoleic acid, fucoxanthin, soy isoflavone, glabridin, astaxanthin and cyaniding-3-glucoside etc. Theses natural products are effective and safe on body weight management in both human and animal studies. 

 

1. World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. 2006. Sep, [Accessed July 24, 2010]. athttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en .

2. Rucker D, Padwal R, Li SK, Curioni C, Lau DC. Long term pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight: updated meta-analysis. BMJ. 2007;335(7631):1194–1199. [PMC free article][PubMed]

3. Padwal RS, Majumdar SR. Drug treatments for obesity: orlistat, sibutramine, and rimonabant. Lancet. 2007;369(9555):71–77.[PubMed]

4. Koo MW, Cho CH. Pharmacological effects of green tea on the gastrointestinal system. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;500(1-3):177–185.[PubMed]

5. Yang TT, Koo MW. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Chinese tea. Pharmacol Res. 1997;35(6):505–512.  [PubMed]

6. Ashida H, Furuyashiki T, Nagayasu H, et al. Anti-obesity actions of green tea: Possible involvements in modulation of the glucose uptake system and suppression of the adipogenesis-related transcription factors. Biofactors. 2004;22:135–140.  [PubMed]

7. Auvichayapat P, Prapochanung M, Tunkamnerdthai O, et al. Effectiveness of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais: A randomized, controlled trial. Physiol Behav. 2008;93:486–491.  [PubMed]

8. Diepvens K, Kovacs EM, Vogels N, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Metabolic effects of green tea and of phases of weight loss. Physiol Behav. 2006;87:185–191.  [PubMed]

9. Kovacs EM, Lejeune MP, Nijs I, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br J Nutr. 2004;91(3):431–437.  [PubMed]

10. Klaus S, Pültz S, Thöne-Reineke C, Wolfram S. Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates diet-induced obesity in mice by decreasing energy absorption and increasing fat oxidation. Int J Obes. 2005;29(6):615–623.  [PubMed]

 

MEAL REPLACEMENT

Meal replacements, in the form of a powder shake and a snack bar, each providing 900 kJ, have been used successfully in several weight-loss trials (5–8). Previous trials with these kinds of meal replacements have nearly always incorporated professional dietary input from either a dietitian, a physician, or a nurse, in addition to written information supplied with the meal replacements. However, daily intake of meal replacement products by a consumer would mostly occur without professional input and feedback. One uncontrolled 12-wk study (9) evaluated meal replacements in a nonclinical worksite weight-reduction program and showed them to be effective in achieving weight loss in this environment.

Efficacy of weight loss programs has frequently referred to nutritional adequacy of diets in relation to general composition (10) or recommended daily intakes (RDI)4 (11,12), or specific health measures [e.g., bone resorption (13)]. Weight-loss programs that use meal replacements have been anecdotally criticized for increasing the risk of inadequate macro- or micronutrient intake or for skewing energy distribution of the diet. The degree of inadequacy in weight-loss diets becomes more critical depending upon the length of time and the discipline with which the weight-loss program is applied. The efficacy of meal replacements, therefore, should consider, in addition to weight loss and nutrient quality and quantity, the structure of dietary information provided. Structure might include the presence or the absence of components such as professional nutrition advice, practical meal plans and recipes,food-cost support (free product or food vouchers), as well as simplicity of instructional messages, frequency and intensity of visits or weight checks, and the duration of the program.

Nevertheless, even accounting for variations in structure of dietary interventions, there is little evidence that the meal replacement approach is effective if applied outside of the clinical environment, i.e., with no professional support, or, more importantly, how it compares with conventional dietary approaches applied in the same context. The efficacy of meal replacements as a nutritionally sound weight-loss strategy compared with a structured low-fat weight-loss plan under unsupervised conditions is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare, under field conditions, 2 weight-loss strategies—a meal replacement product and conventional dietary advice in written form. We hypothesized that meal replacements are more effective than the provision of standard written dietary advice in the absence of personal professional support.

Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

Lisa M Davis, Christopher Coleman, [...], and Andrea Hanlon-Mitola

 

MUSCLE BUILDING, ENERGY, & RECOVERY

SeeRecovery, carbs, Electrolytes, Endurance, Hydration, Inflammation, Nutrient Partitioners, Pro Hormones, Pump Products, and relaxation.

 

NOOTROPICS

Nootropics 

Natural nootropics are proven in boosting the brain function while at the same time making the brain healthier. Nootropics act as a vasodilator against the small arteries and veins in the brain [2]. Introduction of natural nootropics in the system will increase the blood circulation to the brain and at the same time provide the important nutrient and increase energy and oxygen flow to the brain [3]. Despite the 3% weight of total body weight, the brain receives around 15% of the body's total blood supply and oxygen. In fact, the brain can only generate energy from burning the glucose [4], proving that neuron depends on the continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients.

In contrast to most of other cells in the body, neuron cannot be reproduced and is irreplaceable. The neuron cells are persistently expending the converted energy to maintain the repair of the cell compartments. The energy generated from the glucose is crucial for maintenance, electrical, and neurotransmitter purposes [5]. The effect of natural nootropics is also shown to reduce the inflammation occurrence in the brain [6]. The administration of nootropics will protect the brain from toxins and minimising the effects of brain aging. Effects of natural nootropics in improving the brain function are also contributed through the stimulation of the new neuron cell. As incentive from the new neuronal cell, the activity of the brain is increased, enhancing the thinking and memory abilities, thus increasing neuroplasticity [7].

Benefits of using nootropics; 

 

Brain Energy – The brain consumes about 20% of the body’s total energy, qualifying as the body’s most demanding organ.[2] Nootropics may support energy metabolism by enhancing mitochondrial efficiency, delivering raw fuel material, and more.

Brain Chemicals – Neurotransmitters facilitate neuron-to-neuron communication, essentially regulating all cognitive and memory functions. Increasing neurotransmitter production, sharpening receptor sensitivity, inhibiting brain chemical breakdown, etc. contribute to a more fully optimized neurotransmitter status.

Brain Bloodflow – Whether affected by injury or age, impaired cerebral circulation can diminish cerebral function.[3] Supporting blood vessel integrity and nitric oxide levels may help increase delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the brain.

Brain Waves – Different brainwave frequencies — in order from highest to lowest: gamma, beta, alpha, theta, delta — correspond to different mental states. Some nootropics can help raise certain frequencies to stimulate desired cognitive effects.

Brain Protection – Antioxidant reduction in free radical damage. Adaptogenic resistance to stress. Nootropic neuroprotectors may assist the brain’s natural defenses against toxic compounds and conditions through several adaptive processes.

Brain Regeneration – Very few compounds may benefit neurogenesis, the process by which the brain grows and develops neuronal tissue with goals of brain cell repair, maintenance, and plasticity. Some nootropics find potential neurogenesis success in supplying raw nutritional building blocks and signaling growth factor synthesis and release.[4]

 

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.High-Quality Nootropic supplements Are Available From  Titanperformance.store Go To The Nootropic Product Listing! 

 

1. Lanni C., Lenzken S. C., Pascale A., et al. Cognition enhancers between treating and doping the mind. Pharmacological Research. 2008;57(3):196–213. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2008.02.004.  [PubMed][Cross Ref]

2. Dartigues J.-F., Carcaillon L., Helmer C., Lechevallier N., Lafuma A., Khoshnood B. Vasodilators and nootropics as predictors of dementia and mortality in the PAQUID cohort. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2007;55(3):395–399. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01084.x.  [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

3. Kessler J., Thiel A., Karbe H., Heiss W. D. Piracetam improves activated blood flow and facilitates rehabilitation of poststroke aphasic patients. Stroke. 2000;31(9):2112–2116. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.31.9.2112.  [PubMed][Cross Ref]

4. Raichle M. E., Mintun M. A. Brain work and brain imaging. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 2006;29:449–476. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.29.051605.112819.[PubMed] [Cross Ref]

5. Kumar V., Khanna V. K., Seth P. K., Singh P. N., Bhattacharya S. K. Brain neurotransmitter receptor binding and nootropic studies on Indian Hypericum perforatum Linn. Phytotherapy Research. 2002;16(3):210–216. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1101.  [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

6. Radhika P., Annapurna A., Rao S. N. Immunostimulant, cerebroprotective & nootropic activities of Andrographis paniculata leaves extract in normal & type 2 diabetic rats. The Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2012;135(5):636–641. [PMC free article][PubMed]

7. Melkonyan K. P.1.c.002 influence of nootropil on neuroplasticity of the brain cortex in conditions of hypokinesia. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;16:S224–S225. doi: 10.1016/s0924-977x(06)70170-5.[Cross Ref]

8. Garvey D. S., Wasicak J. T., Decker M. W., et al. Novel isoxazoles which interact with brain cholinergic channel receptors have intrinsic cognitive enhancing and anxiolytic activities. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 1994;37(8):1055–1059. doi: 10.1021/jm00034a002.  [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

9. Oyaizu M., Narahashi T. Modulation of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-channel by the nootropic drug nefiracetam. Brain Research. 1999;822(1-2):72–79. doi: 10.1016/S0006-8993(99)01077-X.  [PubMed][Cross Ref]

10. Marchi M., Besana E., Raiteri M. Oxiracetam increases the release of endogenous glutamate from depolarized rat hippocampal slices. European Journal of Pharmacology. 1990;185(2-3):247–249. doi: 10.1016/0014-2999(90)90650-u.  [PubMed][Cross Ref]

 

NUTRIENT PARTITIONERS

Nutrient partitioning is the process of deciding what your body does with the nutrients  consumed.  Are they being used to store fat or burn muscle? If you have good nutrient partitioning you’ll be inclined to oxidize fat, produce glycogen and utilize it as energy. 

 

 

Partitioning supplements reduce blood glucose levels, increasing glucose uptake by muscle and promote fat loss. This is essence changing your Genetic predisposition to use energy. 

 

Why is nutrient partitioning important? General body composition, athletic performance but most importantly health. 

Metabolic syndrome is the combination of a number of health conditions, including high blood pressure, obesity, type II diabetes, etc., that contribute to cardiovascular disease and death.

Rates of metabolic syndrome incidents have been steadily rising in recent years, with as much as 35-40% of adults in the United States being diagnosed with some form of metabolic syndrome. Even worse, it's estimated that nearly 50% of people over the age of 60 have the condition as well. [16]

 

In bodybuilding or any other training objective including sports, the amount of nutrients being used vs store is the amount of physical output you’ll be able to do. This increase will be the result of greater glycogen and protein synthesis. The oxidation of fats will also increase thus a secondary energy expenditure. 

 

 

Other benefits of supplementing with nutrient partitioners: 

 

A number of other human  studies have uncovered several other mechanisms through which berberine enhances overall health, including:

  • Delays breakdown of carbohydrates into simple sugars [4]

One of the ways in which Berberine helps control blood sugar levels is by slowing the digestion of carbs from disaccharides to monosaccharides, thereby preventing release of glucose (a simple sugar) and subsequent spikes in blood sugar.

  • Improves memory and learning [5]

Berberine has been shown to enhance Long Term Potentiation (LTP) -- an increase in the strength of synaptic connections in the brain benefitting memory and learning. Additionally, berberine also is able to reduce the rate of diabetes-induced memory lost via its antioxidant effects. [6]

  • Prevents fat storage [7]

One very interesting piece of research showed that showed that berberine can enhance human fat cell proliferation and inhibit fat cell enlargement. Obesity is primarily due to the increased volume of fat cells which are abnormally hypertrophic (i.e. large). [8]Researchers believe this can help reduce inflammation responses, improve insulin sensitivity, and speed fat loss.

Basically, it's better to have a bunch of small fat cells than a few really big ones when it comes to shedding fat.

  • Combats diabetes [9]

Nutrient partitioners lowers blood glucose in patients with diabetes by several methods, including reducing glucose production in the liver as well as lowering fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, fasting insulin, and HbA1c (a critical marker in tracking the progression of Type II Diabetes) by creating new insulin receptors.


In study patients receiving berberine (a nutrient partitioner) also experienced a 23% decrease of triglyceride and 12.2% decrease of cholesterol levels. Not only is berberine great for weight loss, but also cardiovascular health too.


Berberine was shown to be more effective than Metformin (or placebo) at reducing waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, triglycerides, LDL ("bad") cholesterol, and total cholesterol. [12] Furthermore, Berberine also increased HDL ("good") cholesterol and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) more than Metformin.

Clinical studies have shown that berberine can reduce liver fat content by > 50%. That same study also demonstrated berberine to be more effective than pioglitazone, a commonly used prescription for Type II Diabetes, at improving lipid markers and reducing body weight. [13]

It’s obvious to see why one would consider taking these products. You will notice the affects considerably more in conjunction with a diet well controlled in carbohydrates and high in protein. 

[1] Diraison F, Moulin P, Beylot M. Contribution of hepatic de novo lipogenesis and reesterification of plasma nonesterified fatty acids to plasma triglyceride synthesis during non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Diabetes Metab. 2003 Nov;29(5):478-85.

 

[2] Sanyal AJ, Campbell-Sargent C, Mirshahi F, Rizzo WB, Contos MJ, Sterling RK, Luketic VA, Shiffman ML, Clore JN. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: association of insulin resistance and mitochondrial abnormalities. Gastroenterology. 2001 Apr;120(5):1183-92.

 

[3] Shaw DI, Hall WL, Williams CM. Metabolic syndrome: what is it and what are the implications? Proc Nutr Soc. 2005 Aug;64(3):349-57.

 

[4] Black PH. The inflammatory response is an integral part of the stress response: Implications for atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome X. Brain Behav Immun. 2003 Oct;17(5):350-64.

 

[5] : Yuan M, Konstantopoulos N, Lee J, Hansen L, Li ZW, Karin M, Shoelson SE. Reversal of obesity- and diet-induced insulin resistance with salicylates or targeted disruption of Ikkbeta. Science. 2001 Aug 31;293(5535):1673-7.

 

[6] Bjorntorp P, Holm G, Rosmond R. Hypothalamic arousal, insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 1999 May;16(5):373-83.

 

[7] Festa A, D’Agostino R Jr, Howard G, Mykkanen L, Tracy RP, Haffner SM. Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Circulation. 2000 Jul 4;102(1):42-7.

 

[8] Hermanowski-Vosatka A, Balkovec JM, Cheng K, Chen HY, Hernandez M, Koo GC, Le Grand CB, Li Z, Metzger JM, Mundt SS, Noonan H, Nunes CN, Olson SH, Pikounis B, Ren N, Robertson N, Schaeffer JM, Shah K, Springer MS, Strack AM, Strowski M, Wu K, Wu T, Xiao J, Zhang BB, Wright SD, Thieringer R. 11beta-HSD1 inhibition ameliorates metabolic syndrome and prevents progression of atherosclerosis in mice. J Exp Med. 2005 Aug 15;202(4):517-27.

 

[9] Chen N, Liu L, Zhang Y, Ginsberg HN, Yu YH. Whole-body Insulin Resistance in the Absence of Obesity in FVB Mice With Overexpression of Dgat1 in Adipose Tissue. Diabetes. 2005 Dec;54(12):3379-86.

 

[10] Bessesen DH, Rupp CL, Eckel RH. Dietary fat is shunted away from oxidation, toward storage in obese Zucker rats.
Obes Res. 1995 Mar;3(2):179-89.

 

OMEGAS & EFAs

Omegas and EFA’s are one of the most overlooked supplements. They are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.[1]

 

There are two kinds:  alpha-linolenic acid (sometimes called omega-3) and linoleic acid (omega-6). These two fats are essential because their chemical structure means that they can be used to make hormone-like substances called prostaglandins, which go on to regulate a host of other functions in the body. They cannot be synthesized by the body which is good and supplementation is so beneficial. 

 

When choosing an product in this category it’s important to look for the DHA/EPA content in them. They should be on the higher end like the ones we carry at Titanperformance.store

 

 

The omega-3 and omega-6 fats are needed for the synthesis of prostaglandins, which help regulate certain aspects of metabolism, such as blood viscosity, inflammatory processes, blood cholesterol and fat levels, and water balance. Additionally, it is now widely accepted that a low ratio of EFAs to saturated fatty acids is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

 By increasing intakes of these essential fats appear to reduce tissue levels of triglycerides (stored fats), which improves the sensitivity of insulin (the hormone that drives amino acids and glucose into muscle cells), so reducing the risk of obesity and CHD.

 

They play essential roles in the maintenance of energy balance and glucose metabolism. In particular, they observed a phenomenon known as ‘fuel partitioning’, whereby dietary EFAs were able to direct glucose (from digested carbohydrates) towards glycogen storage while at the same time directing other fatty acids in the body away from triglyceride synthesis (ie fat storage) and towards fatty acid oxidation! In addition, these studies suggested that omega-3 fatty acids have the unique ability to enhance thermogenesis (the burning of excess fat to produce heat), thereby reducing the efficiency of body fat deposition(2-7). In simple terms, this fuel partitioning phenomenon appears to conserve carbohydrate while simultaneously shedding fat – exactly what most athletes would give their right arm for!

Further study of this fuel partitioning effect led to the discovery that the EFAs were somehow boosting the production of enzymes involved with fatty acid oxidation (such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase, which helps transport fatty acids into the mitochondria of the cells for burning) while at the same time down-regulating the production of enzymes involved in fat synthesis, such as fatty acid synthase (8-12).

At first it was assumed that this ‘up-regulation’ of fat burning/glycogen synthesising enzymes and ‘down-regulation’ of fat storage enzymes occurred through hormonal signalling; in other words that the EFAs were somehow altering the cell membranes, causing a change in chemistry and leading to altered enzyme production by the genes responsible. However, these changes in gene transcription occur too quickly to be explained in this way; there seemed to be a much more direct effect. And eventually researchers discovered, to their amazement, that these EFAs were able to control gene expression directly via a steroid-like substance called PPARα (13,14).

PPARα is known as a ‘lipid-activated transcription factor’. This means it switches on key genes by binding to DNA, but only when it has been activated itself by binding to lipids such as EFAs. And it turns out that the genes it switches on are precisely those which code for enzymes involved in fat burning! Not only was this a remarkable discovery in itself, it was also the first time science had clearly demonstrated that nutritional components of the diet can exert direct control over the function of genes.

Although PPARα was believed to act as a ‘master switch’, helping to switch on genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and switch off those involved in fat storage, more recent research(15,16) has demonstrated that the down-regulation of fat storage enzymes occurs because EFAs impair the release of another group of steroid-like substances called ‘sterol response element binding proteins’, or SREBPs for short!(15,16). One of these (SREBP-1) helps to switch on the gene that codes for a fat synthesis enzyme called fatty acid synthase. However, a different type (SREBP-2) is a regulator of genes coding for proteins involved in cholesterol synthesis, which probably explains why healthy intakes of the EFAs reduce cholesterol (17, 18).

The thermogenesis effect of omega-3 fats mentioned earlier is now believed to occur as a result of their ability to activate a gene that codes for a protein called ‘uncoupling protein-3’ (13); this protein allows the energy derived from the oxidation of fatty acids to be dissipated as heat, rather than coupled to the metabolic processes in order to do. 

In 2001 Dr Udo Erasmus (considered by many to be a crusader for the health benefits of EFAs) carried out a study with 61 Danish athletes. After eight weeks of supplementation with a 2:1 blend of omega-3/omega-6 oil, the athletes (selected from a wide variety of sports) showed a significant increase in HDL (healthy) cholesterol levels, a more favourable ratio of HDL to LDL (unhealthy) cholesterol and lower levels of fasting triglycerides. A large percentage of the group also reported subjective improvements in endurance and recovery. However, subjective measurements are notoriously prone to the placebo effect, which means that the results should be interpreted with caution.

Meanwhile, a well-controlled study carried out on football players in 1997 showed no increase in VO2max or anaerobic threshold when diets were supplemented with 2.5 grams per day of omega-3 from fish oils (19). However, the dose of omega-3 used was very small, and the fuel partitioning effects of EFAs described above could only be expected to improve endurance and reduce body fat – parameters which were not assessed in this study.

Turn to animal and ‘in vitro’ studies, though, and things begin to look much more promising. In a study carried out last year, scientists studied the effects of omega-3 fat supplementation on swimming performance in rats (20). By comparison with a control group of unsupplemented rats, there was a 300% rise in the ‘swimming muscle’ levels of FABP, a protein that binds fatty acids and transports them to the mitochondria for oxidation, but no increase in muscle triglycerides. The researchers concluded that this effect was probably due to an up-regulation of the fatty acid metabolism genes via the PPARα mechanism discussed earlier.

In a study on rat muscle fibres, high omega-3 and omega-6 diets produced 16-21% more muscle tension and up to 32% greater endurance during high frequency stimulation(21). Moreover, when these rats resumed their standard diets for a period of six weeks, their muscle function returned to the level of un-supplemented rats.

Rat studies on EFAs and body composition also look promising. In a Japanese study, very young rats were fed for four months on a diet containing one of the following (22):

  • 12% perilla oil (very rich in omega-3);

  • safflower oil (very rich in omega-6);

  • olive oil (rich in mono-unsaturates);

  • beef fat (rich in saturated fats).

The amount of food consumed and the weight gained was the same in all four groups, but the amount of fat stored, the number of fat cells and fat cell volume were all significantly lower in the omega-3 and -6 groups. Furthermore, the genes involved in fat cell differentiation were significantly down-regulated in the omega-3 group by comparison with the olive oil and beef fat groups! Intriguingly, some human research points to a synergistic effect between endurance training and EFA metabolism. Earlier this year, scientists studying the phenomenon of ‘uncoupling’ in human muscle mitochondria found (as expected) that the genes coding for uncoupling proteins (the ones that stimulate thermogenesis via uncoupled respiration) were activated by omega-3 fats. What surprised them, however, was that after endurance training the stimulating effect of omega-3 fats was even stronger. In other words, omega-3 oils seem to stimulate thermogenesis most effectively in muscles that are endurance-trained!

So where does all this leave athletes? Although there’s a dearth of well-controlled double-blind studies on the interaction of EFA and genes in humans, there’s no doubting the weight of evidence accumulating from animal and in-vitro studies. Numerous studies have demonstrated that western diets containing significant amounts of processed foods and saturated or chemically-altered fats are very low in EFAs, particularly omega-3 fats, creating an unbalanced ratio of dietary omega-6:omega-3 (23). Typically, this ratio in modern diets is between 10:1 and 25:1, although the World Health Organisation recommends a ratio of between 5 and 10:1. Some nutritional researchers recommend an even higher proportion of omega-3, with as much as a third of total EFA intake from omega-3.

 

11. Balk EM, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M, Kupelnick B, Chew P, Lau J. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review. Atherosclerosis. 2006;189(1): 19–30.[PubMed]

12. De Rosa LM. Can purified omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation act blood pressure levels in untreated normal-high blood pressure subjects with hypertriglyceridemia? J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;3(2): 234–239.

13. Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Grobbee DE, Donders AR, Kok FJ. Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: meta regression analysis of randomized trials. J Hypertension. 2002;20(8): 1493–1499.  [PubMed]

14. Visser M. Epidemiology of Muscle Mass Loss with Age In: Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Morley JE, editors. Sarcopenia. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 2012. pp. 1–2.

15. Eritsland J, Arnesen H, Grønseth K, Fjeld NB, Abdelnoor M. Effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids on coronary artery bypass graft patency. Am J Cardiol. 1996;77(1): 31–36. [PubMed]

 

ORGAN SHIELDS


Organ Shields are designed to support, protect, and restore hepatic (liver), prostatic (prostate), and cardiovascular (heart) function during times of high stress, such as when using pro hormones. This blend of specific antioxidants, flavonoids, and phytonutrients scavenges free radicals preventing them from attacking healthy cells as well repairing damaged cells.

 

PRO HORMONES

Prohormones are compounds which are converted via an enzymatic process to anabolic hormones in the body. As such they will cause similar effects in the body as testosterone. 

1-Andro is a naturally occurring isomer of DHEA and also known by the chemical formula of 3b-hydroxy-5a-androst-1-en-17-one. Short for 1-Androstenolone, 1-Andro is an androgenic sex hormone that does NOT convert into estrogen or DHT (dihydrotestosterone). In other words, 1-Andro is 100% anabolic, plain and simple!

1-Andro undergoes a 2-step conversion in the body to convert into the non-estrogenic 1-testosterone, where it remains as such until it’s put to use by your body for building slabs of lean muscle tissue. 1-testosterone is naturally occurring in the body and has been shown to be 200% more anabolic than testosterone, the “king” of muscle building hormones!

Additionally, since 1-Andro won’t convert to estrogen, it’s basically free from any nasty estrogen side effects (i.e. man boobs) and it even exerts some anti-estrogenic effects by shifting the androgen:estrogen ratio.

1-Andro even has some clinical research behind it proving its efficacy. Research conducted at Texas A&M University documented that resistance-trained men ingesting 330mg 1-Andro per day was as effective as a 300mg / week cycle of injectable testosterone enanthate for improving strength, power, and lean mass gains![1]

4-Androstenolone (4-Andro) is another naturally-occurring DHEA isomer and one of the newer prohormones on the market. Its chemical formula is 4-androstene-3b-ol,17-one, which is similar to chemical makeup of regular DHEA but with double bond in the 4th position, dramatically altering its actions in the body.

Similar to 1-Andro, 4-Andro undergoes a 2-step conversion by way of the enzyme pathways 3b-HSD and 17b-HSD (3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, respectively). 4-Andro first converts to both Androstenedione and Androstenediol then they finally convert to our target anabolic — testosterone.

Epi Andro (3b-Hydroxyetioallocholan-17-one) is another popular andro that converts to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a.k.a. Stanalone. Some of you may be concerned about rising DHT levels, due to some bad press it’s received over the years, but in reality, DHT is incredibly anabolic (even more than testosterone) and has been shown to significantly enhance strength, lean mass, muscle hardness, and even libido.[2] In other words, Epi Andro transforms you into a superhuman in the gym and in the bedroom!

DHT suppresses Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG), a protein generated in the liver that binds to Testosterone, DHT, and estradiol. Less SHBG means less circulating estrogen and significantly greater circulating free testosterone, ratcheting up your ability to build muscle fast. While most of the bad rap Epi Andro has received is unfounded, it is possible for it to cause some hair loss, but in reality, it’s more likely that estrogen is the culprit.[3]

 

19 nor-Andro (19nor-Dehydroepiandrosterone or 19-nor-DHEA) is the last of the popular prohormones of today. “19-nor” indicates that this compound is lacking a carbon atom in the 19th position. While that might sound like a negative, it’s actually a very good thing, as it causes 19-nor to become incredibly androgenic.

Unlike the previous andro supplements described above, 19 nor-andro actually undergoes a 3-part conversion in the body where it first converts to 19-Nor-DHEA then morphs into 19-nor-dione and then to 19-nor-diol, before ultimately converting to 19-nortestosterone, (Nandrolone), an incredibly anabolic compound that significantly increases muscle protein synthesis and lipolysis (i.e. fat burning).

Tri Andro is the strongest. It combines the power of 1-Andro, 4-Andro, and Epi Andro together to create the most potent, and best bang for your buck. 

 

References:

  1. Granados, J. et al; “Prohormone Supplement 3 -Hydroxy-5 -Androst-1-En-17-One Enhances Resistance Training Gains But Impairs User Health”; Journal of Applied Physiology; 116.5 (2013): 560-569; http://jap.physiology.org/content/116/5/560.long

  2. Ly LP, Jimenez M, Zhuang TN, Celermajer DS, Conway AJ, Handelsman DJ. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of transdermal dihydrotestosterone gel on muscular strength, mobility, and quality of life in older men with partial androgen deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(9):4078-4088. doi:10.1210/jcem.86.9.7821. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11549629

  3. Herskovitz I, Tosti A. Female Pattern Hair Loss. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2013;11(4):e9860. doi:10.5812/ijem.9860. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC396898

 

PROTEIN

See Whey, Casein, Meal Replacement, Egg

 

PUMP PRODUCTS

What are pump supplements? Compounds that regulates nitric oxide synthase to increase blood flow to the muscles and enhances both cognition and focus. [1] In addition to providing mind-blowing muscle pumps agmatine sulfate also appears to have nutrient partitioning, pain relief, and neuroprotective benefits. [2]


Muscle pumps not only have an aesthetic appeal but also physiological benefits. Contracted muscles engorged with blood signifies the delivery of critical nutrients to the muscles. These nutrients facilitate increases in muscular size, strength and endurance as well as recovery.

Increased vascularity occurs as a result of vasodilation, the expansion of blood vessels, and increased blood flow to muscles as a result of contracting the target muscles. You can further enhance vascularity by decreasing your body fat to reveal veins as well as muscles you've spent so much effort and time building.

 

 

Tarnopolsky, M. A. (1994). Caffeine and endurance performance. Sports Medicine, 18(2), 109-125. 

Tarnopolsky, M. A., Atkinson, S. A., MacDougall, J. D., Sale, D. G., & Sutton, J. R. (1989). Physiological responses to caffeine during endurance running in habitual caffeine users. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 21(4), 418-424.

Artioli, G. G., Gualano, B., Smith, A., Stout, J., & Lancha Jr, A. H. (2010). Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(6), 1162-1173.

Sale, C., Saunders, B., & Harris, R. C. (2010). Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance. Amino acids, 39(2), 321-333.

Sureda, A., & Pons, A. (2012). Arginine and citrulline supplementation in sports and exercise: ergogenic nutrients?. In Acute Topics in Sport Nutrition(Vol. 59, pp. 18-28). Karger Publishers.

Urhausen, A., & Kindermann, W. (1992). Blood ammonia and lactate concentrations during endurance exercise of differing intensities. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 65(3), 209-214.

 

RELAXATION

See Sleep aids

 

SLEEP AIDS

Sleep aid either stimulates or inhibits certain transmitters that tells the brain to sleep.  Designed to encourage rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep aids can help you get the most out of your recovery time, and won't leave you groggy in the morning.*

 

  • In a study at UCLA School of Medicine of 18 people with sleep disorders, individuals who were given a GABA supplement were able to fall asleep in almost half the time it took those taking placebos and increased their time spent sleeping by approximately 73%. Before supplementation, the duration of their sleep was about 5 hours, and after supplementation, it increased to about 6.83 hours. There was virtually no change in the placebo group. [23]

  • Recently, researchers found that natural GABA has various sleep-improving effects. The researchers measured brain waves using electroencephalography (EEG) after participants took 100 milligrams (mg) of natural GABA or placebo. [24] Those who took GABA fell asleep faster and had longer quality sleep time. They also experienced enhanced periods of REM sleep and reported feeling more energized in the morning.

  • In a 2013 study on elderly men with frequent night urination, GABA proved to enhance sleep length, quality, while helping them wake up feeling less groggy in the mornings and greatly curbing nighttime urination. [25]

  •  

  •  

  • In a recent study of young males with ADHD, L-theanine improved sleep quality and length of time spent sleeping, and typically, all children with ADHD have much trouble sleeping. They also reported feeling more refreshed after sleep, that they had fewer nightmares, decreased anxiety and more relaxation at bedtime, and more energy throughout the following day as well. [27]

  • One great asset of L-theanine is that it does not cause grogginess or become addictive over time, as most sleep aids do. L-theanine has also been found to counteract the effects of caffeine (in studies with rats, to note) and promote sleep even when excessive caffeine is in the system. [28]

  • In another recent study, l-theanine helped subjects with major depressive disorder to get more restful sleep, and also produced positive effects like reducing anxiety and elevating mood. [29]

  •  

  • In one recent double-blind study, valerian was found to yield nights of perfect sleep for 44% of participants and improved sleep for 89% of participants. 

  •  

  • Valerian root combined with lemon balm has proven to be highly effective in treating insomnia, more effective than either herb used alone. In a recent study of children with sleep problems, 81% of those who took an herbal combination of valerian and lemon balm reported sleeping much better than those who took a placebo. [56]

  •  

  •  

  • In a recent 2016 study, women with postpartum depression who supplemented with chamomile experienced improved sleep and alleviated depression as well. [59]

  • Another double-blind study revealed that chamomile can help users moderately improve many aspects of sleep latency, night time awakenings, daytime functioning, and fatigue severity. [60]

 

1. Altevogt B. M., Colten H. R.  Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press; 2006. 

2. Daly J. W., Hide I., Muller C. E., Shamim M. Caffeine analogs: structure-activity relationships at adenosine receptors. Pharmacology. 1991;42(6):309–321. doi: 10.1159/000138813.  [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

3. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID = 2519, March 2015, http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/caffeine#section=Top.

4. Andrews K. W., Schweitzer A., Zhao C., et al. The caffeine contents of dietary supplements commonly purchased in the US: analysis of 53 products with caffeine-containing ingredients. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2007;389(1):231–239. doi: 10.1007/s00216-007-1437-2.[PubMed] [Cross Ref]

5. Karadsheh N., Kussie P., Linthicum D. S. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by caffeine, anabasine, methyl pyrrolidine and their derivatives. Toxicology Letters. 1991;55(3):335–342. doi: 10.1016/0378-4274(91)90015-x.  [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

 

WHEY

With so many proteins out there, it can get confusing as to what you should take... Learn more about Whey Protein Powder.


1. What is whey protein with isolate and concentrate and where does it come from?Whey protein isolate is the highest yield of protein currently available, and it comes from milk. Because of its chemical properties, whey protein is the easiest to absorb into your muscles. Obviously, with its high concentration, whey protein isolate is the best to use.

Whey protein isolate is also the most pure and concentrated form of whey protein available. It contains 90% or more protein and very little (if any) fat and lactose.

Whey protein concentrate also comes from milk. Whey protein concentrate has anywhere between 29% and 89% protein depending upon the product. As the protein level in whey protein concentrate decreases the amounts of fat and/or lactose usually increase.

Comparing the two, whey protein isolate is slightly more expensive than concentrate - because of it's higher quality (more pure), and have a higher biological value (BV). Whey protein isolate contains more protein with less fat and lactose per serving. Usually, isolate contains 90-98% protein while whey concentrate contains 70-85%.

Most of the whey protein powders you find today will contain mostly whey protein concentrate with some whey isolate mixed in. You'll also find a lot of pure whey protein concentrate, and some whey protein isolate. However, getting both from one source gives you the best of both worlds!

2. What does whey protein with isolate and concentrate do and what scientific studies give evidence to support this?Whey protein with isolate and concentrate is incredibly important for your body. It provides you with all the building blocks to produce amino acids that will be used for building muscle tissue.

This protein combination contains the perfect blend of overall amino acid makeup for optimal performance in the body. Additionally, both hormonal and cellular responses seem to be greatly enhanced with supplementation of whey protein too! Not to mention the benefits whey protein has on the body's immune system according to documented scientific research.

Whey protein also plays a role as an antioxidant and helps support a health immune system. Most importantly, consistent whey protein intake coupled with exercise will result in consistent muscle building.

Studies have been conducted that compare whey protein to other sources. They have found that whey protein contains the perfect balance of amino acids along with other nutrients to maximize your fitness and strength goals.

3. Who needs whey protein with isolate and concentrate and how much should be taken? Are there any side effects or symptoms of deficiency?Whey protein is very important for bodybuilders, people dieting, and just about anybody! Since athletes and bodybuilders work out quite often, protein levels become depleted. By being a direct precursor to building muscle and providing essential amino acids, such as glutamine, the content from high quality whey protein will help one's muscles recover and grow faster by bringing up the levels of protein.

With dieting and those wishing to lose some extra fat, whey protein can be very useful because a good intake of protein balances blood sugar levels, while carbohydrates cause blood sugar levels to fluctuate. When the blood sugar levels stay balanced, one is not as prone to rampant eating and has more energy and will see greater fat loss.

Training athletes often consume 25 grams of whey protein per day. Bodybuilders who want serious gains and are thus burning more calories, generally consume 150 grams per day. Extremely high doses of whey protein is not recommended, as this will cause the body's liver to be overloaded and you won't get the same benefits as with a consistent lower amount taken three to five times per day.

Whey protein allows a person to control his or her diet effectively. Most people who want to change their body for the better could benefit from whey protein supplementation. However, since protein is naturally found in many food items deficiency is usually not a problem.

References:http://www.bodybuildingforyou.com/protein/whey-protein-isolate-concentrate.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whey_protein
http://www.wheyoflife.org/faq.cfm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_in_nutrition
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/protein.html
http://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/guide/benefits-protein

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.High-Quality Whey Protein Powder Supplements Are Available From Titanperformance.store Go To The Full Whey Protein Powder Product Listing
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